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foregut diseases

  • Esophageal atresia: Esophageal atresia is a congenital disease in which the esophagus is not in continuity. The affected babies cannot eat or swallow. Usually there is a connection, of fistula, between the lower esophageal part and the trachea.

  • Tracheoesophageal fistula: Tracheoesophageal fistulas are abnormal connections between the esophagus and the trachea. They usually are found in esophageal atresia, but can be an isolated finding

  • Gastroesophageal reflux: Abnormal flow of stomach content into the esophagus. This can lead to irritation and inflammation of the lining of the esophagus, and cause breathing problems.

  • Eosinophilic esophagitis: An inflammation of the esophagus with certain inflammatory cells that cause thickening of the esophageal wall and swallowing problems.

  • Achalasia: Failure of the lower esophagus to relax and allow the passage of food into the stomach. Affected patients have swallowing problems.

  • Dysphagia: Difficulty swallowing

  • Airway problems: Problems breathing.

  • Cleft syndrome: congenital defect of the upper respiratory tract to different degrees.

  • Tracheomalacia: weakness of the cartilage within the trachea, leading to possible breathing problems

  • Double aortic arch: congenital malformation of the great vessels leading to swallowing problems

  • Bezoars or other tumors of the stomach. Bezoars are collections of foreign material in the stomach that cannot pass distally into the intestine.

  • Mal- or non-rotation of the foregut, especially the stomach. They might stay asymptomatic but can also lead to lifethreatening events due to twisting of the bowel (volvulus) and subsequent impairment of blood perfusion.

  • Motility disorders: Inability of the alimentary tract to push food and stool downwards from the mouth to the anus. This can be caused by multiple reasons.

  • Stenosis of the pylorus (stomach outflow tract): leads to vomiting and abnormal satiety

  • Lung malformations: Masses or tumors of the lung that are congenital in nature.

  • Duplications: Cystic structures right next to the gastrointestinal tract that are lined with mucosa.

  • Mikrogastria: A rare disease in which the stomach is abnormally small, either its own entity or a secondary condition due to other congenital malformations such as esophageal atresia.

  • Pyloric stenosis: A condition in young, mainly male babies in which the outflow tract of the stomach is obstructed by an abnormally thickened muscle.

  • Duodenal atresia: congenital malformation were the duodenum in not in continuity or there is a severe narrowing in the first part of the small bowel,

  • Hiatal hernia: disease in which the stomach glides up inside the chest, increases the risk for gastroosophageal reflux disease

  • Barrett esophagus: Changes of the lining of the lower esophagus resulting from gastroesophageal reflux disease that can predispose to cancer later in life.

  • Esophageal cancers: Cancers of the food pipe, usually a disease of adults.

  • Caustic burns and accidental ingestions of hot fluid, acid or alkaline solutions of the esophagus that can lead to scarring and narrowing.

  • Diverticula of the esophagus: bulges of the esophagus where food can stuck in leading to regurgitation, nausea, dysphagia and infections

  • Scleroderma: an autoimmune disease which leads to a fibrosis of the tissues such as the lung and sometimes also of the esophagus.

  • Systemic lupus erythematodes: also an autoimmune disease with affection of the esophagus